Communications Technology - Master of Science (M.Sc.)
The desire to communicate facts, ideas and emotions is central to human existence everywhere. Communications technologies shape our increasingly global societies, and deeply impact our daily lives.
The international Master of Science Programme Communications Technology provides you with the advanced competences necessary to develop the infrastructure and devices of the future, where wireless and fibreoptic networks become ever faster, and evermore ubiquitous.
Successful applicants will have a Bachelor of Science or comparable degree in Electrical Engineering or a closely related field with a significantly above-average grade, be fluent in English and have a strong motivation to work in a challenging multicultural environment.
Master of Science (M.Sc.)Studientyp
- nächstes Sommersemester: 01.04.2020
- keine Zulassungsbeschränkung
120Regelstudienzeit (in Semestern)
Worum geht es in diesem Studiengang?
Communications Technology is a two-year Master of Science Programme with a highly research-oriented curriculum teaching from solid fundamentals and state-of-the-art methods to up-to-date content from communications engineering, microelectronics, microwave engineering, and optoelectronics.
The core subjects provide a broad, yet in-depth background aimed at current communications techniques (digital communications and RF engineering). By choosing track-specific compulsory modules, an up-to-date specialization in either Communications Engineering or Communications Circuits and Systems is achieved. Various elective modules from either the communication and information theory side or the field of microelectronics and circuits and systems allow for a study focus according to personal interests. Lab courses provide practical training in experimental and simulation methods, while the half year Master’s thesis (6 months, full-time) gives a thorough exposure to doing research on current topics in one of the school’s highly active and well-funded research groups.
The programme is taught entirely in English; additional German language classes are part of the programme. Communications Technology has a distinct international atmosphere. Since 1998, students from more than 50 different countries on all continents have completed the programme. Intercultural competence is thus also an important and natural study goal.
About the programme
As the global economy transitions from the industrial to the information age, a broadband and omnipresent communications infrastructure becomes each nation's most vital resource, creating new and exciting professional opportunities everywhere on the planet. A global workplace for highly qualified engineers of tomorrow develops, which requires
- a thorough understanding of the concepts that fuel the rapid technological change in the field,
- as well as a profound alertness towards the non-technical issues which so often make the difference between success and failure
The Master of Science Programme in Communications Technology at Ulm University is uniquely designed to meet these demands. Established in 1998, it was among the first educational programmes in Germany taught exclusively in English, and designed specifically for foreign students.
We are devoted to giving you the right education to help shape communication systems of the future.
Our curriculum aims at providing you with a high degree of flexibility to select contents according to your personal interests, while providing you experienced guidance ensuring persistent knowledge of benefit throughout your career.
We expect that you bring with you a very solid background in electrical engineering, telecommunications, and related fields, documented by an above-average Bachelor of Science degree. Studying at a German University is highly research-oriented, starting from the fundamentals with a strong mathematical background up to current world-class research, where you can participate in particular during your Master's Thesis. We also expect our student to acquire a high degree of autonomous organization and working techniques.
Our curriculum aims at providing you with a high degree of flexibility to shape contents according to your personal interests, while providing you experienced guidance ensuring knowledge of benefit throughout your career.
We distinguish between
- Core subjects which are compulsory for all students
- track-specific compulsory subjects according to the track option you have chosen (see below), and
- elective subjects.
- the Communications Engineering Track emphasizing applied telecommunications theory, and
- the Communications Circuits and Systems Track
- the Communications Engineering Track emphasizing applied telecommunications theory, and
- the Communications Circuits and Systems Track
Dr. Sandra Mann
89069 Ulm, Germany
phone: +49 (0)731/50-26004
fax: +49 (0)731/50-26003
room: University West/41.3.107
Dr. Werner Teich
Key Academic Advising
89081 Ulm, Germany
Institute of Communications Engineering
phone: +49 (0)731/50-26258
fax: +49 (0)731/50-26259
For general inquiries on Communications Technology
Welcome Ceremony 2017
Welcome Ceremony and Award of the Promotion Prizes 2017
For almost two decades, the Master of Science Programme Communications Technology has prepared international students for exciting careers in today's global information society and in a broad spectrum of industrial areas, especially in research and development.
Application areas go from mobile communications via the automotive industry to medical engineering. Furthermore, good graduates from the programme are well prepared for a doctoral research study. The programme is therefore also the basis for a scientific career at a University or research institute throughout the world.
What alumni say
- Chethan Venkatesan, MSc, Class of 2016
During his studies in Communications Technology, Chethan Venkatesan, MSc, selected the Communications Engineering track with a particular focus on Communication theory and Channel coding. At CommSolid GmbH in Dresden he currently works in the field of algorithm design and development for Narrow Band IoT (Internet-of-Things) with focus on Layer 1.
His tip for students:
“Follow every lecture and keep yourself updated on the concepts and understanding of the subject. It is very important to study during the semester and work on projects voluntarily (although many projects are optional). This makes your life easier during the exam period. Plan your electives based on your interest leading to a good Master thesis topic.“
Chethan Venkatesan, MSc, CommSolid GmbH, Dresden
(Master Communications Technology, Class of 2016)
- Rahul Batra, MSc, Class of 2016
Rahul Batra, MSc, works as an Antenna Design Engineer at Hirschmann Car Communication GmbH. During his studies, he focused on RF engineering and wrote his master’s thesis on Antenna Design.
He recommends concentrating on the concepts and reviewing older papers and exercises for exams.
“Prefer to study in groups, this helps a lot. Also take labs for more experience with different tools and software. I personally recommend to attend more German classes offered by the Centre for Languages and Philology apart from compulsory German in C-Tech.”
Rahul Batra, MSc, Hirschmann Car Communication GmbH, Neckartenzlingen
(Master Communications Technology, Class of 2016)
- Ningxin Fu, MSc, Class of 2015
Having selected the Communications Engineering track in Communications Technology, Ningxin Fu, MSc, set her major focus on biomedical applications/biosensors. It was important for her to know right from the beginning what her focus and interests were so that she could select courses, internship and a thesis topic leading in the same direction which eventually helped her land in the right field at work.
„Lab courses and thesis are great opportunities to gain hands-on experience, it's a good idea to choose them (and complete them) in a way that helps you the most in achieving your goal.“
Ningxin Fu now works in technical product management and support for diagnostic oncology devices at Sysmex Europe GmbH in Norderstedt.
Ningxin Fu, MSc, Sysmex Europe GmbH, Norderstedt
(Master Communications Technology, Class of 2015)
- George Yammine, MSc, Class of 2014
George Yammine, MSc, studied Communications Technology with a focus on wireless communications and a particular interest in OFDM, MIMO and iterative techniques.
The opportunity to supplement his studies with practical experience gained in lab courses offered within the programme was very important to him.
His tips for students of Communications Technology are twofold:
“When it comes to studying in Germany, the students should take the opportunity to develop an independent study plan and do lots of reading about the study subjects when they have doubts. We have an awesome library at Uni Ulm!
When it comes to living in Germany, and Ulm in particular, enjoy the country! Germany has a lot to offer when it comes to culture. Go to museums, visit castles, enjoy the view, take a walk down the Danube!“
Following graduation in 2014, he joined the Institute of Communications Engineering at Ulm University as a doctoral candidate supervised by Prof. Robert Fischer.
George Yammine, MSc, Ulm University
(Master Communications Technology, Class of 2014)
- Hebat-Allah Abdeen, MSc, Class of 2013
Hebat-Allah Abdeen, MSc, chose the Microelectronics track in Communications Technology with a special focus on Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) and semiconductor devices.
After graduating in 2013, she started her PhD at the Institute of Electron Devices and Circuits at Ulm University, with Prof. Hermann Schumacher as supervisor of her doctoral thesis.
“The programme has a diverse scope and is well suited for people from different educational systems. It is a great opportunity for one to widen one's horizon. It is important to learn how to manage your time and follow up always with the classes and syllabuses. Meanwhile, one should also find time for some refreshment, exercising, hiking/going on excursions from time to time. One should work hard on getting the best out of the whole experience.”
Hebat-Allah Abdeen, MSc, Ulm University
(Master Communications Technology, Class of 2013)
- Dr. Ayyaz Qureshi, Class of 2010
During his master studies, Dr. Ayyaz Qureshi selected the Microelectronics track with a special focus on RF.
“Since the very beginning I wanted to pursue a doctoral degree. Therefore, it was of utmost importance for me to build a strong base using C-tech platform in both theoretical and practical knowledge. Exposure with international students, strong industry presence, well equipped labs and competent teaching staff are some of the key factors which helped me reach this goal.”
Dr. Qureshi completed his doctoral studies at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) in 2013. Since then he has been working as an RF Specialist in Nokia’s HW R&D department in Ulm.
Dr. Ayyaz Qureshi, Nokia Solution and Networks GmbH & Co. KG, Ulm
(Master Communications Technology, Class of 2010)
What industry says
Nokia is a global leader in telecommunications serving customers in more than 100 countries. In Ulm next to Ulm University campus Nokia is operating a Research & Development center with focus on network infrastructure for LTE and 5G. Although located in Germany the number of nationalities of our employees is beyond 30 according to the global dimension of our business. Therefore we highly appreciate the international orientation of the Communications Technology curriculum. The subjects taught match very well with the skill profile expected from engineers working in Nokia. As a former external lecturer in this master programme I am always happy to meet former students graduated in Communications Technology who are now colleagues in Nokia may it be in Ulm or during business trips in other parts of the world.
Dr. Hans-Joachim Dreßler, Site Manager Nokia Ulm
How to apply
Note that the the application is a two-step process with the following compulsory steps:
1. submit pre-application first (please exclusively use Adobe Acrobat)
2. send your paper based application after receiving a reply
The application process consists of two parts - a pre-application phase for all applicants, followed by a full application for selected pre-applicants. A first assessment of your qualification will be given after you enter all the required information in our pre-application form. As a second step, after we receive your full application, we check whether your qualification is suitable for successfully attending "Communications Technology".
Please read the information on this page carefully for application requirements and prerequisites. If you are in doubt - just fill in the pre-application form. If you have any questions concerning the programme, please feel free to contact us either by electronic mail, phone, or fax.
We can check your chances of admission into our programme only after receiving the completed pre-application form.
"Beware of Plagiarism! In recent years we saw a large number of Statements of Objectives which have been plagiarized from the web. Such applicants will be excluded immediately from further selection. We are using a plagiarism tracking algorithm now, so expect our detection rate to increase even further.
We don't look for novelists and poets, we look for engineers (fine if you are additionally a poet ..). So it is perfectly ok if your statement is written in a plain language. But make sure
- that it addresses your personal motivation;
- that you tell us your reasons to apply to a university in Germany, and to the University of Ulm in special;
- that you tell us about your future plans."
Start of accepting pre-applications: July Deadline for completing the pre-application: September 1 Deadline for completed full, paper-based application to reach the admissions office: October 1 Start of the programme: March
Common requirements for all students
- Above-average performance in the completed degree
- Good knowledge in the English language.
- TOEFL score of minimum 570 in the paper-based, 230 in the computer-based, or 88 in the internet-based test
- IELTS score of 6.5 or better
- University of Cambridge ESOL Exam with level C1 or better (CPE) or grade C or better (CAE)
- The willingness to work in a challenging, multi-cultural environment
A B.Sc. or B.Eng. (or higher degree), usually of four year duration, in Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Computer Engineering, Mathematics, Physics or a closely related field.
The Master of Science programme Communications Technology builds upon prior knowledge, which you should have acquired during your Bachelor education.
In order to assess your prior knowledge and to judge by yourself whether you are familiar with the background material required and presumed at the Communications Technology programme, please carefully work through the following questions. Test your prior knowledge.
For German students or foreign students with a German university degree
- A Bachelor degree or a Fachhochschuldiplom or University degree in one of the above subjects
Admission Regulations or Zulassungssatzung (in German)
In December 2013, the University of Ulm issued the current rules for the admission process of Communications Technology.
The full text is available here.
However, only the German version (Zulassungssatzung) is legally binding.
Please note these important dates for the pre-application.
- Start of accepting pre-applications : July
- Deadline for completing the pre-application : 1 September
For applying, all applicants first have to complete the pre-application process (available only during the application phase) by supplying the requested information. We will assess your chances of admission and then inform you whether a full application is requested or not. Provided we would like to encourage your full application, please print the completely filled in and signed application form you submitted for the pre-application, attach the required documentation, and send it to us before the official application deadline mentioned above.
Please note that the pre-application is valid only for the upcoming term.
Please note that the deadline for the completed paper based application to reach the admissions office is 1 October
Earlier sending of the applications is highly appreciated.
The full application will have to include the following:
- Fully completed and signed application form (the one already required for the pre-application).
- Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) score with at least 570 points (paper based), 230 (computer-based), or 88 (internet-based), or International English Language Testing System (IELTS) offered by the British Council with a score of 6.5 or better, or University of Cambridge ESOL Exam with level C1 or better (CPE) or grade C or better (CAE).
Note: All applicants must submit IELTS or TOEFL scores (irrespective of whether the medium of instruction at high school/university was English or not!). There are no exceptions!
- Curriculum vitae (already required in the pre-application)
- Personal statement of objectives (already required in the pre-application)
- Two letters of reference issued by members of the university. We do not provide a specific format, but prefer a personal statement. Applicant's university letter head or a similar format is recommended. If previous studies were completed more than two years before the application, one letter may be from the current employer.
- Photocopies of all official certificates and transcripts - including proof of grading system(s) (plus maximum and minimum passing grade) applied in your bachelor's degree.
- Photocopies of English or German translations of all official certificates and transcripts (including proof of grading system(s) (plus maximum and minimum passing grade) applied in your bachelor's degree), in case the language of the certificates is neither English nor German.
- Passport photo, for official use only (already required in the pre-application)
- If applying from China or Vietnam: Original APS-certificate from the "Akademische Prüfstelle" at the German Embassy
Please note that we only accept applications using the "Communications Technology"-specific application form. Applications in any other format or those which have not been pre-evaluated will be summarily rejected. Full applications have to be posted by postal mail to the following address:
Faculty of Engineering, Computer Science and Psychology
E-mail attachments are not acceptable.
After evaluation of your documents, and upon positive decision on your application, the University of Ulm will send you a letter of admission (Zulassung).
Reporting your TOEFL Score to Ulm
If you want Educational Testing Service (ETS) to report the TOEFL score directly to us: The University of Ulm's Institutional Code is 8407
However, if you use the following address (instead of the code) the TOEFL score will be sent directly to the Communications Technology office:
I do not have TOEFL score now. Can I send the TOEFL score later?
In case your TOEFL score is not yet available by the time you post your application it can be handed in separately. It must, however, be received by November 1! Please include proof of registration for a test date with your application.
Country specific application requirements
Due to Federal Regulations, special conditions currently apply for:
Recommendations added by the Communications Technology office exist for:
- Other African countries
In January 2007 the requirement for an APS certificate for applicants from Vietnam was introduced. The APS certificate issued by the German embassy is compulsory. As in China, where this certificate had already been introduced some years back, the APS certificate serves to prove the validity of documents. Important note: Documents for the APS procedure have to be handed in by the end of September or of March.
For more information contact:
Deutsche Botschaft in Hanoi, APS, 29 Tran Phu, Q. Ba Dinh, Hanoi
Phone: 04-845 38 36/7, 04-843 02 45/6
Fax: 04- 843 99 69
For Chinese applicants, a special and faster procedure for visa application is available since July 2001. Prerequisite for participation in the faster visa application procedure is that you have your academic transcripts checked by the Akademische Prüfstelle, an institution at the German Embassy in Beijing. You will also be given an interview of about 20 minutes duration during which your academic background will be tested. The language of the interview is English or German.
Please note - All students who wish to apply at a German university are now required to obtain the certificate issued by the Akademische Prüfstelle (APS).
Please include the APS-certificate with your application for the Master's programme Communications Technology at the university of Ulm. The certificate is valid for twelve months and entitles you to participate in the privileged visa application. This means that the waiting time for an appointment at the embassy will be reduced considerably and visa application is facilitated.
Fees for participating in the accelerated visa procedure are at present approximately 2500 RMB, which includes fees for the visum and the examination. For participating in the new visa procedure you have to apply at:
Akademische Prüfstelle des Kulturreferates der
Deutschen Botschaft Peking
Landmark Tower 2, Office 0311,
8 North Dong sanhuan Road, Chaoyang District,
Tel.: +86 (0)10-6590 7138
Fax: +86 (0)10-6590 7140
Homepage: German Embassy Peking
The forms required for applying and additional information are available at the above mentioned address, the visa department of the embassy, the DAAD office and the Goethe-Institute.
Applicants from India are highly encouraged to include their GATE result with their application (if available).
The Certificate of Registration from the Pakistan Engineering Council should be included with the application.
Applicants from Ghana need at least a Bachelor's degree. The Higher National Diploma (HND) does not entitle for enrollment in the Master's programme. TOEFL or IELTS is required for all applicants from Ghana.
It is advisable to ask for a visa-appointment well in advance, possibly already upon applying, since waiting time may be very long in some African countries.
Visa and Immigration Requirements for foreign students
Foreign students have to apply for a student visa at their nearest German Embassy in their home country. German Immigration Law does not allow to change the Immigration status whilst in Germany; never enter with a tourist visa !
As soon as you know about your admission go to the nearest embassy or consulate. Go there immediately after receiving the admission letter. Be aware that the visa procedure will take several weeks. The embassies will inform you about the details of visa application as they apply to your country. You have to present the following at the Embassy:
- our letter of admission (Zulassung)
- our documentation of the course
- a proof of your financial means (700 Euro/month at the least). Be prepared to show a bank statement covering the full expenses of the first year!
- in addition to the above the respective embassy may require you to submit additional material - check with your nearest German embassy
The excellent frequently asked questions pool at the DAAD website is a good resource (select from drop-down menu at the top of the page).
What services and assistance is provided?
Together with the admission letter you will receive detailed information on services we provide. We will assist you in finding housing, i.e. we will make reservations in the students' dormitories.
Upon arrival a senior student will meet and assist you during your first hours on foreign terrain. You will soon meet your new classmates and become familiar with your new surroundings.
An intensive German class will be offered in March, just before the beginning of the lecture period. Be sure to attend this class. It will help you meet your new classmates and feel more comfortable when roaming around town.
You will get further assistance with formalities after arrival.
Students admitted to the programme will get a room booked in a student dormitory if they wish. A housing application form will be mailed along with the admission. There are four dorms downtown (25 min bus drive to the campus) and one near the campus (walking distance). All rooms are one person rooms and fully furnished. You share kitchen (with all cooking facilities) and bathroom with a few persons; according to the type of dorm this can be 2 to 12 persons. There are no dorms exclusively for men or women.
Student Dormitories in Ulm
- The main dormitories are the dormitory complexes "Heilmeyersteige" and "Manfred-Börner-Straße" at walking distance from the University and the dormitory "Gutenbergstraße" downtown.
- overview of student dormitories run by the Studierendenwerk Ulm (students housing office)
Dormitory prices are mostly between 240 Euro and 320 Euro per month.
Computer, Intranet/Internet access and Multimedia
The School maintains a positively agressive attitude towards modern multimedia instruction techniques. Internet-based instructional technology developed at the School has been presented at several conferences and exhibitions.
Two large computer pools reserved for students and a high speed university intranet guarantee immediate access to computer-assisted training.
Tuition Fees are only applicable for second degree and international students. Further Infomation can be found here. Additionally the university and the students union (Studierendenwerk Ulm) currently charge administrative fees approximately amounting to 165 € each semester. Students are also responsible for their own living expenses which run, as a guideline, at 700 Euro per month.
All students will receive a very sizable support of their studies from tax revenues automatically. Students are, however, fully responsible for their cost of living.
Still, there are several possibilities of financial support. The most common way of support for our foreign students are part-time research assistantships provided by the research groups within the School of Engineering (called HiWi jobs). There are many of these jobs available. Nevertheless, you will have to look for them yourself once you are here. This allows you to choose a research group according to your interest.
However, since your main purpose of coming to Ulm is studying and obtaining a master's degree, we very strongly recommend that students do not take on more than about 40 hours per month. This leads to a monthly income of about 340 Euro.
During the breaks when no lectures are held you will also have the opportunity of taking up jobs with companies, particularly those with a presence in the "Science City" around the university. For a total duration of 120 days per year, work outside of the university does not require a labor permit. During the lecture periods, work outside of the university requires a special permission for foreign students if it exceeds 20 hours per week. This is generally not encouraged.
Overall the chances for finding a student job are very good in Ulm. So far all students who wanted a student job also managed to find one.
For information on scholarship programmes, please consult
- the DAAD website,
- Stipendienlotse - the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) scholarship database
- Stipendium Plus, a portal which combines information on several foundations and agencies supporting graduate and post-graduate studies in Germany.
Financial assistance for students in Germany
The Deutscher Bildungsserver maintains a database of links to institutions providing grants to students in Germany. The page is in German.
We often receive requests for grants or fellowships. However, as the fee charged for the studies is only a small fraction of the actual cost, there are no funds to re-distribute in the form of grants. There are quite a few institutions in Germany who provide such grants, partly only to German students, but many also to students from abroad.
The website on Bildungsserver provides a good introduction, if you know a little German. The referenced institutional websites are partly available also in English.
Please understand that the Communications Technology Programme cannot make any recommendations or endorsements for any of these institutions. The article is solely provided as a service to you.
Stipends exclusively available for students of the Communications Technology Programme
Two stipends are available to support students during the six month period of the final thesis. You are eligible for a thesis stipend if you complete all your classes within the first three semesters of your studies and register your thesis at the beginning of the fourth semester.
Specific stipends have been provided by the DAAD for students from our partner university in Egypt, the German University in Cairo.
Last year an "Einstein-stipend" provided by Ulmer Universitätsgesellschaft, was reserved for a student from the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Colombia.
Tuition fees for international students
The Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts Baden-Württemberg has introduced tuition fees for international students (Non-EU citizens) coming to Baden-Württemberg for academic studies. From winter semester 2017/18 onwards, international students must pay tuition fees amounting to 1,500 EUR per semester. Please find further information at UULM Study, Application and enrolment or on the Ministry's website.
International Students International English Language Testing System
IELTS is, after the TOEFL, the second-most popular proficiency certificate, and is also accepted in the Communications Technology program.
IELTS International Students TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language
The Test of English as a Foreign Language is the most popular proficiency test in English. It comes in paper-based and computer-based falvors, both of which are acceptable in the Communications Technology program.
TOEFL International Students DAAD - the German Academic Exchange Service
If you consider studies in Germany, the DAAD's website, touted as the Gateway to Higher Education in Germany, is a must!
DAAD International Students DAAD - the German Academic Exchange Service
First steps in Germany - if you have general questions about what it is like to live as a student in Germany, take a look!
Firt Steps in Germany International Students DAAD - the German Academic Exchange Service
Questions about obtaining a visa to study in Germany? The DAAD site provides fundamental information on who needs a visa and how to obtain it.
Student Visa for Germany International Students Campus Germany provides a wealth of information on higher education opportunities in Germany. You can select information on the individual cities hosting institutions of higher education. Campus Germany Grant Opportunities sdw - Stiftung der Deutschen Wirtschaft für Qualifizierung und Kooperation e.V.
The Foundation's Studienförderwerk Klaus Murmann provides grants to qualified students, German and international alike, for undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral studies. Applicants should not only have good grades, but should have demonstrated an interest in societal affairs, and in "taking charge".
Stiftung der Deutschen Wirtschaft Grant Opportunities Evangelisches Studienwerk e.V.
Promotionsförderung - support for doctoral studies: The agency is close to the Protestant church in Germany and supports 200 doctoral students each year. Applicants should belong to a protestant or anglican church (exceptions are possible) and provide evidence of an expeditious course of studies with above average results (at least a "good" in the German grading system). Foreign applicants can apply after they have been accepted for doctoral studies at a German university.
Evangelisches Studienwerk (in German) Grant Opportunities Rosa Luxemburg Foundation
The foundation supports undergraduate and doctoral students who, in addition to their academic excellence have shown significant social activities. Applicants should be enrolled at a German university - there is a special program for researchers from abroad.
Rosa Luxemburg Foundation
"Deutscher Bildungsserver" maintains a database of links to institutions providing grants to students in Germany.
History of Science The Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the largest professional society in our field, offers a fascinating view at the development in electrical engineering and electronics. The site is frequently updated and has changing special exhibits, just like a normal museum. IEEE Virtual Museum History of Science Bell Laboratories
Many of the breakthrough innovations in communications and microelectronics in the second half of the 20th century have come from a few places in the US state of New Jersey.