Focused Ion Beam Center UUlm

The FIB Center UUlm has two high-resolution FEI dual beam microscopes:

Helios Nanolab 600 und Quanta FEG 3D

Both systems are equipped with an electron column and ion column arranged in a 52º angle; both focused beams have a coincident focus point in the eucentric plane. Hence, a maskless modification of specimens (gas-assisted etching, milling, deposition, etc.) with the ion beam can be simultaneously imaged, monitored or analyzed with the electron beam. The “slice and view” module allows a fully automated serial sectioning providing a stack of images, which leads to a 3D dataset of the sectioned volume.


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apl. Prof. Dr. Christine Kranz


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The Helios Nanolab 600 has an ElstarTM electron column and a SidewinderTM ion column. In addition, it is equipped with an Omniprobe lift out system for TEM sample preparation. Lamellas prepared by FIB (Auto TEM software) can be transferred to a TEM grid for further thinning of the lamella. The Helios Nanolab 600 is also equipped with a cryo system and a cryo transfer chamber (Quorum) for fast freezing of samples and transfer into the specimen chamber. FIB milling as well as SEM imaging can be performed under cryogenic conditions. In combination with FIB, the cryo system provides an alternative to micro tomography regarding to preparation of facets.

In addition, the NanoBuilderTM software module allows rapid prototyping of complex structures using electron and ion beam induced deposition or gas-assisted etching processes.


Technical specifications

Ion optics (Sidewinder™ column)

Liquid Ga ion source
FIB Res. 5 nm (@ 30 kV)
  Field emission SEM

SEM (Schottky field emitter)
Res. 0.9 nm @ 15 kV
Piezo-controlled stage

x,y: 150 mm, z: 10 mm
6 inch wafer holder

Beam Chemistry

Pt deposition
Insulator Enhanced etch, IEE (XeF2)
Selective Carbon Mill, SCE


Quorum Cryosystem
AutoTEM ™

Helios Nanolab 600 im FIB Center UUlm

Innenansicht des Mikroskops

The Quanta 3D FEG is equipped with a state of the art SDD Apollo XV EDX detector (EDAX) for fast and precise qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis, and therefore more focused on analysis of materials. A DigiView 4 EBSD detector (EDAX) enables crystallographic investigations of specimens concerning grain orientations and textures.

In addition, the Quanta 3D FEG can be operated in ESEM mode. In this configuration the SEM is operated at a significant higher pressure (up to 4000 Pa) using water vapor to raise the pressure to the desired level. The water molecules remove charges built up by the electron beam allowing the investigation of non-conducting specimen without coating. ESEM mode can be used in combination with EDX and EBSD detectors. The ESEM mode can be used to investigate “wet” specimen.


Technical specifications

Ion optics

Liquid Ga ion source
FIB Res. 7 nm (@ 30 kV)
  Field emission SEM

SEM (Schottky field emitter)
Three imaging modes:
Beam current

1.5 pA -65 nA in 15 steps
      - high vacuum 
   - low vacuum   

   - Environmental SEM (ESEM™)

x,y: 50 mm, z: 25 mm
  High vacuum: 1.2 nm at 30 kV (SE)
Low vacuum: 1.5 nm at 30 kV (SE)
ESEM: 1.5 nm at 30 kV (SE)

  Beam Chemistry

Pt, SiO2 deposition
Insulator Enhanced etch (IEE) XeF2
Auto Slice and View™

Quanta 3D FEG im FIB Center UUlm


  • A. Brandt, K. Keesa, K. Leopold Characterization of various metal nanoparticles by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: possibilities and limitations with regard to size and shape J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 35 2536-2544 (2020)
  • R. Stach, T. Barone, E. Cauda, P. Krebs, B. Pejcic, S. Daboss, B. Mizaikoff Direct infrared spectroscopy for the size-independent identification and quantification of respirable particles relative mass in mine dustsAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 412, 34993508 (2020) DOI:
  • S. Daboss, J. Lin, M. Godejohann, C. Kranz Redox Switchable Polydopamine-Modified AFM-SECM Probes: A Probe for Electrochemical Force Spectroscopy Analytical Chemistry, 92, 8404−8413 (2020)
  • A. Hellmann, S. Daboss, F. Zink, C. Hartmann, P. Radermacher, C. Kranz, “Electrocatalytically modified microelectrodes for the detection of hydrogen peroxide at blood cells from swine with induced trauma”, Electrochimica Acta, 353, 136458 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2020.136458
  • J. Haas, R. Stach, C. Kolm, R. Krska, B. Mizaikoff Gallium arsenide waveguides as a platform for direct mid-infrared vibrational spectroscopy Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, (2020) DOI: 10.1007/s00216-020-02546-3


  • M. Schlathauer, J. Friedland, M. Linden, K. Leopold,   Sustainable and reagent-free mercury trace determination in natural waters using nanogold dipsticks  Microchemical Journal, 147, 253-262 (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.microc.2019.03.032
  • J. Haas, P. Artmann, B. Mizaikoff   Mid-infrared GaAs/AlGaAs micro-ring resonators characterized via thermal tuning  RSC Advances, 9, 8594-8599 (2019) DOI: 10.1039/c8ra10395j
  • H. Wagdy, M. Dinc, B. Mizaikoff Synthesis of surface imprinted core-shell nanospheres for the selective determination of asparaginase Analytical Methods 11(31), 4034-4043 (2019) DOI: 10.1039/c9ay00634f
  • M. Gast, H. Sobek, B. Mizaikoff, Selective virus capture via hexon imprinting   Materials Science & Engineering, C: Materials for Biological Applications 99, 1099-1104 (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.02.037
  • A. Mutschler, V. Stock, L. Ebert, E. M. Bjoerk, K. Leopold, M. Linden, Mesoporous silica-gold films for straightforward, highly reproducible monitoring of mercury traces in water  Nanomaterials, 9, 35/1-35/14 (2019) DOI: 10.3390/nano901003
  • J. Lin, S. Daboss, D. Blaimer, C. Kranz, Micro-Structured Polydopamine Films via Pulsed Electrochemical Deposition  Nanomaterials, 9, 242/1-242/12 (2019) DOI: 10.3390/nano9020242
  • S. Daboss, P. Knittel, C. E. Nebel, C. Kranz Multifunctional Boron-Doped Diamond Colloidal AFM Probes Small, 15(48), 1902099 (2019) DOI: 10.1002/smll.201902099
  • L. Kaack, C. M. Altaner, C. Carmesin, A. Diaz, M. Holler, C. Kranz, G. Neusser, M. Odstrcil , H. J. Schenk, V. Schmidt, M. Weber, Y. Zhang, S. Jansen Function and three-dimensional structure of intervessel pit membranes in angiosperms: a review IAWA journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists 40(4), 673-702(2019)  DOI: 10.1016/22941932-40190259


  • M. Gast, S. Kuehner, H. Sobek, P. Walther, B. Mizaikoff Enhanced Selectivity by Passivation: Molecular Imprints for Viruses with Exceptional Binding Properties Analytical Chemistry, 90, 5576-5585 (2018) DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b05148
  • J. Haas, E. V. Catalan, P. Piron, F. Nikolajeff, L. Oesterlund, M. Karlsson, B. Mizaikoff Polycrystalline Diamond Thin-Film Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Evanescent Field Sensors  ACS Omega, 3, 6190-6198 (2018) DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00623
  • J. Haas, M. Schwartz, U. Rengstl, M. Jetter, P. Michler, B. Mizaikoff Chem/bio sensing with non-classical light and integrated photonics Analyst, 143, 593-605 (2018) DOI: 10.1039/c7an01011g
  • J. Haas, E.V. Catalan, P. Piron, M. Karlsson, B. Mizaikoff Infrared spectroscopy based on broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers and polycrystalline diamond waveguides Analyst, 143, 5112-5119 (2018) DOI: 10.1039/c8an00919h
  • A. Holzinger, G. Neusser, B. J. J. Austen, A. Gamero-Quijano, G. Herzog, D. M. W. Arrigan, A. Ziegler, P. Walther, C. Kranz Investigation of modified Nanopore Arrays by FIB/SEM Tomography Faraday Discussions, 210 (Electrochemistry at nano-Interfaces), 113-130 (2018) DOI: 10.1039/c8fd00019k
  • N. Schauer, M. Dinc, B. Raabe, T. Hummel, M. Mueller, H. Sobek, B. Mizaikoff Selective binding of matrix metalloproteases MMP-9 and MMP-12 to inhibitor-assisted thermolysin-imprinted beads RSC Advances, 8, 32387-32394 (2018) DOI: 10.1039/c8ra04444a
  • R. S. Fernandes, M. Dinc, I. M. Raimundo Jr., B. Mizaikoff Synthesis and characterization of porous surface molecularly imprinted silica microsphere for selective extraction of ascorbic acid Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 264, 28-34 (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2017.07.019
  • M. Dinc, H. Basan, T. Hummel, M. Mueller, H. Sobek, I. Rapp, T. Diemant, R. J. Behm, M. Linden, B. Mizaikoff Selective Binding of Inhibitor-Assisted Surface-Imprinted Core/Shell Microbeads in protein Mixtures ChemistrySelect, 3, 4277-4282 (2018) DOI: 10.1002/slct.201800129
  • J. P. Guin, M. Dinc, B. Mizaikoff Selective Navigation of Bisphenol-A from Water to a Polarity Tuned Porous Molecularly Imprinted Polymer ChemistrySelect, 3, 12223-12233 (2018) DOI: 10.1002/slct.201802691


  • O. Bibikova, J. Haas, Á.I. López-Lorente, A. Popov, M. Kinnunen, Y. Ryabchikov, A. Kabashin, I. Meglinski, B. Mizaikoff Surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy based on gold nanostars and spherical nanoparticles Analytica Chimica Acta, 990, 141-149 (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.07.045
  • J. Izquierdo, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, R.M. Souto In situ investigation of copper corrosion in acidic chloride solution using atomic force − scanning electrochemical microscopy Electrochimica Acta, 247, 588–599 (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2017.07.042
  • P. Knittel, N. Hibst, B. Mizaikoff, S. Strehle, C. Kranz Focused ion beam-assisted fabrication of soft high-aspect ratio silicon nanowire atomic force microscopy probes Ultramicroscopy, 179, 24–32 (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.03.031
  • S.K. Guin, P. Knittel, S. Daboss, A. Breusow, C. Kranz Template- and additive-free electrosynthesis and characterization of spherical gold nanoparticles on hydrophobic conducting polydimethylsiloxane Chemistry - An Asian Journal, 12(13), 1615–1624 (2017) DOI: 10.1002/asia.201700444
  • O. Bibikova, J. Haas, A.I. Lopez-Lorente, A. Popov, M. Kinnunen, I. Meglinski, B. Mizaikoff Towards enhanced optical sensor performance: SEIRA and SERS with plasmonic nanostars The Analyst, 142(6), 951–958 (2017) DOI: 10.1039/c6an02596j
  • R. Fernandes, M. Dinc, I. Raimundo Jr., B. Mizaikoff Molecularly imprinted core-shell hybrid microspheres for the selective extraction of vanillin Analytical Methods, 9, 2883–2889 (2017) DOI: 10.1039/C7AY00461C
  • C. Ziller, J. Lin, P. Knittel, L. Friedrich, C. Andronescu, S. Pöller, W. Schuhamnn, C. Kranz Poly(benzoxazine) as immobilization matrix for miniaturized ATP and glucose biosensors ChemElectroChem, 4(4), 864–871 (2017) DOI: 10.1002/celc.201600765
  • Á.I. López-Lorente, P. Wang, B. Mizaikoff Towards label-free mid-infrared protein assays: In-situ formation of bare gold nanoparticles for surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy of bovine serum albumin Microchimica Acta, 184(2), 453–462 (2017) DOI: 10.1007/s00604-016-2031-0
  • M. Liesegang, R. Milke, C. Kranz, G. Neusser Silica nanoparticle aggregation in calcite replacement reactions  Scientific Reports, 7, 14550 (2017) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-06458-8
  • G. Neusser, S. Eppler, J.L. Bowen, C.J. Allender, P. Walther, B. Mizaikoff, C. Kranz FIB and MIP: Understanding Nanoscale Porosity in Molecularly Imprinted Polymers via 3D FIB/SEM Tomography Nanoscale, 9, 14327-14334 (2017) DOI: 10.1039/C7NR05725C


  • M. Hocker, P. Maier, L. Jerg, I. Tischer, G. Neusser, C. Kranz, M. Pristovsek, C.J. Humphreys, R.A. Leute, D. Heinz, O. Rettig, F. Scholz, K. Thonke Determination of axial and lateral exciton diffusion length in GaN by electron energy dependent cathodoluminescence Journal of Applied Physics, 120, 085703/1–085703/6 (2016) DOI: 10.1063/1.4961417
  • J. Izquierdo, B.M. Fernández-Pérez, A. Eifert, R.M. Souto, C. Kranz Simultaneous Atomic Force - Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) Imaging of Copper dissolution Electrochimica Acta, 201, 320–332 (2016) DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2015.12.160
  • C.M. Frey, A. Eifert, H. Schütz, H. Barth, B. Mizaikoff, C. Kranz Macroscopic and Microscopic electrochemical investigation of Clostridium botulinum C2IIa embedded in supported lipid membranes Electrochimica Acta, 209, 341–349 (2016) DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.05.055
  • M. Sieger, B. Mizaikoff  Toward On-Chip Mid-Infrared Sensors Analytical Chemistry, 88 (11), 5562–5573 (2016) DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b04143
  • Y. Liu, A. Holzinger, P. Knittel, L. Poltorak, A. Gamero-Quijano, W.D.A. Rickard, A. Walcarius, G. Herzog, C. Kranz, D.W.M. Arrigan Visualization of Diffusion within Nanoarrays Analytical Chemistry, 88 (13), 6689–6695 (2016) DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b00513
  • P. Knittel, B. Mizaikoff, C. Kranz Simultaneous Nanomechanical and Electrochemical Mapping: Combining Peak Force Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy with Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Analytical Chemistry, 88 (12), 6174–6178 (2016) DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01086
  • A. Pochert, S. Ziller, S. Kapetanovic, G. Neusser, C. Kranz, M. Lindén Intermediate Pickering emulsion formation as a means for synthesizing hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles New Journal of Chemistry, 40 (5), 4217–4222 (2016) DOI: 10.1039/C5NJ02855H
  • P. Knittel, H. Zhang, C. Kranz, G.G. Wallace, M.J. Higgins Probing the PEDOT:PSS/Cell Interface with Conductive Colloidal Probe AFM-SECM Nanoscale, 8, 4475–4481 (2016) DOI: 10.1039/C5NR07155K
  • P. Knittel, O. Bibikova, C. Kranz Challenges in nanoelectrochemical and nanomechanical studies of individual anisotropic gold nanoparticles Faraday Discussions, 193, 353–369 (2016) DOI: 10.1039/C6FD00128A
  • N. Hibst, P. Knittel, J. Biskupek, C. Kranz, B. Mizaikoff, S. Strehle  The mechanisms of platinum-catalyzed silicon nano-wire growth Semiconductor Science and Technology, 31 (2), 025005 (2016) DOI: 10.1088/0268-1242/31/2/025005
  • E.N. Ndunda, B. Mizaikoff Synthesis of stationary phases that provide group recognition for polychlorinated biphenyls by porogenic fragment template imprinting Journal of Separation Science, 39 (5), 939–346 (2016) DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201500960


  • A. Pochert, D. Schneider, J. Haase, M. Linden, and R. Valiullin Diffusion and Molecular Exchange in Hollow Core–Shell Silica Nanoparticles Langmuir, 31, 37, 10285–10295 (2015) DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02367
  • E.N. Ndunda, V.O. Madadi, B. Mizaikoff An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices Environmental Science: Processes Impacts, 17 (12), 2101–2109 (2015) DOI: 10.1039/C5EM00409H
  • E.N. Ndunda, B. Mizaikoff Multi-walled carbon nanotubes: innovative sorbents for pre-concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls in aqueous environments Analytical Methods, 7 (19), 8034–8040 (2015) DOI: 10.1039/C5AY01496D
  • C. Villinger, G. Neusser, C. Kranz, P. Walther, T. Mertens 3D Analysis of HCMV Induced Nuclear Membrane Structures by FIB/SEM Tomography: Insight into an Unprecedented Membrane Morphology Viruses, 7 (11), 5686–5704 (2015) DOI: 10.3390/v7112900
  • I. Tischer, M. Hocker, B. Neuschl, M. Madel, M. Feneberg, M. Schirra, M. Frey, M. Knab, P. Maier, T. Wunderer, R. A.R. Leute, J. Wang, F. Scholz, J. Biskupek, J. Bernhard, U. Kaiser, U. Simon, L. Dieterle, H. Groiss, E. Müller, D. Gerthsen and K. Thonke  Optical properties of defects in nitride semiconductors. Journal of Materials Research, 30(20), 2977-2990. (2015)DOI:
  • T. Conte Granado, G. Neusser, C. Kranz, J. Batista Destro Filho, V. Carabelli, E. Carbone, A. Pasquarelli, Progress in transparent diamond microelectrode arrays, Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials  in press, 2015; DOI:10.1002/pssa.201532168
  • Y. Liu, M. Sairi, G. Neusser, C. Kranz, D. W. M. Arrigan, Achievement of Diffusional Independence at Nanoscale Liquid–Liquid Interfaces within Arrays, Analytical Chemistry, 87, 5486–5490 (2015), DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b01602
  • M. Madel, G. Neusser, U. Simon, B. Mizaikoff, K. Thonke, c-plane ZnO on a-plane sapphire: Inclusion of (1101) domains, Journal of Crystal Growth, 419, 128-132 (2015)
  • M. Sairi, N. Chen-Tan, G. Neusser, C. Kranz, Damien W. M. Arrigan, "Electrochemical Characterisation of Nanoscale Liquid|Liquid Interfaces Located at Focused Ion Beam-Milled Silicon Nitride Membranes", ChemElectroChem, 2, 98-105  (2015)
  • A. Eifert, B. Mizaikoff, C. Kranz, "Advanced fabrication process for combined atomic force-scanning electrochemical microscopy (AFM-SECM) probes", Micron, 68, 27-35 (2015).
  • B. Riedmüller, F. Huber, U. Herr "Towards sub-200 nm nano-structuring of linear giant magneto-resistivespin valves by a direct focused ion beam milling process" Journal of Applied Physics, 115, 064307 (2014) DOI: 10.1063/1.4865736
  • N. Hibst, P. Knittel, C. Kranz, B. Mizaikoff, S. Strehle, “Beam-Deposited Platinum as Versatile Catalyst for Bottom-Up Silicon Nanowire Synthesis”, Applied Physics Letters, 105, 153110, (2014).
  • L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, T. Teraji, L. Marseglia, C. Mueller, B. Naydenov, H. Schauffert, C. Kranz, J. Isoya, L. P. McGuinness, F. Jelezko, "Multiple identical single photon emitters in diamond",  Nature Communication , 5, (2014), DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5739.
  • L. L. Kegel, S.-S. Kim, B. Mizaikoff, C. Kranz, K. S. Booksh, "Position Dependent Plasmonic Interaction Between a Single Nanoparticle and a Nanohole Array", Plasmonics, 9, 1229–1237 (2014).
  • A. Eifert, P. Langenwalther, J. Higl, M. Linden, C. E. Nebel, B. Mizaikoff, C. Kranz, "Focused ion beam (FIB)-induced changes in the electrochemical behavior of boron-doped diamond electrodes", Electrochimica Acta, 130, 418-425 (2014).
  • P. Knittel, M. J. Higgins, C. Kranz", Nanoscopic polypyrrole AFM-SECM probes enabling force measurements under potential control", Nanoscale, 6 2255- 2260 (2014).
  • C. Villinger, M. Schauflinger, H. Gregorius, C. Kranz, K. Höhn, S. Nafeey, P. Walther, Three-Dimensional Imaging of Adherent Cells using 2FIB/SEM and STEM, in Electron Microscopy: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology John Kuo (ed.), Vol. 1117, 617-638 (2014).
  • I. Tischer, M. Frey, M. Hocker, L. Jerg, M. Madel, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, R. Leute, F. Scholz, H. Groiss, E. Müller and D. Gerthsen "Basal plane stacking faults in semipolar AlGaN: Hints to Al redistribution" Phys. Status Solidi B, 251: 2321-2325. (2014) DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201451252
  • J. M. Dake & C. E. Krill "Abnormal Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Materials" Materials Science Forum, 753, 317–320. (2013)
  • T. Schädle, A. Eifert, C. Kranz, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, B. Mizaikoff, "Mid-Infrared Planar Silver Halide Waveguides with Integrated Grating Couplers", Applied Spectroscopy, 67, 1057-1063 (2013).
  • B. Riedmüller and U. Herr, "Nano-Patterning of GMR Spin Valves by FIB Technique" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 3662-3665, Nov. 2012 DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2012.2203296
  • U. Herr, B. Riedmueller, M. Haddad, K. AbuShgair, M. Madel, J.B. Jakob and K. Thonke, "Investigation of Si nanowires from VLS growth" Phys. Status Solidi C, 9: 1912-1915. (2012) DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201200237
  • C. Villinger, H. Gregorius, C. Kranz, K. Höhn, C. Münzberg, G. von Wichert, B. Mizaikoff, G. Wanner, P.Walther, "FIB/SEM-tomography with TEM-like resolution for 3D imaging of high pressure frozen cells", Histochem. Cell Biol., 138, 549-556 (2012).
  • A. Eifert, W. Smirnov, S. Frittmann, C. Nebel, B. Mizaikoff, C. Kranz, "Atomic force microscopy probes with integrated boron doped diamond electrodes: Fabrication and application", Electrochem. Commun., 25, 30-34 (2012).
  • W. Smirnov, A. Kriele, R. Hoffmann, E. Sillero, J. Hees, O. A. Williams, N. Yang, C. Kranz, C. E. Nebel, "Diamond-Modified AFM Probes: From Diamond Nanowires to Atomic Force Microscopy-Integrated Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes“, Anal. Chem., 83(12), 4936-4941 (2011).



GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift (11/2012, S. 787)

Uni Ulm Intern (04/2011)