in press

Bader, M., Horsten, L.K., Hilbig, B. E., Zettler, I., & Moshagen, M. (in press). Measuring the Dark Core of Personality in German: Psychometric Properties, Measurement Invariance, Predictive Validity, and Self-Other Agreement. Journal of Personality Assessment Supplementary Files

Bader, M., Jobst, L. J., & Moshagen, M. (in press). Sample size requirements for bifactor models. Structural Equation Modeling. Supplemental Files

Bader, M., & Moshagen, M. (in press). No Probifactor Model Fit Index Bias, but a Propensity Toward Selecting the Best Model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Supplementary Files 

Hartung, J., Bader, M., Moshagen, M., & Wilhelm, O. (in press). Age and gender differences in socially aversive (“dark”) personality traits. European Journal of Personality Supplementary Files

Hilbig, B. E., Moshagen, M., & Zettler, I. (in press). Consensus is not the cure; it’s part of the disease. Personality Science

Horsten, L. K., Moshagen, M., Zettler, I., & Hilbig, B. E. (in press). Theoretical and empirical dissociations between the Dark Factor of Personality and low Honesty-Humility. Journal of Research in Personality.

Jobst, L. J., Auerswald, M., & Moshagen, M. (in press). The Effect of Latent and Error Non-Normality on Corrections to the Test Statistic in Structural Equation Modeling. Behavior Research Methods

Jobst, L. J., Auerswald, M., & Moshagen, M. (in press). The Effect of Latent and Error Non-Normality on Measures of Fit in Structural Equation Modeling. Educational and Psychological Measurement. Supplementary Files

Jobst, L. J., Bader, M., & Moshagen, M. (in press). A Tutorial on Assessing Statistical Power and Determining Sample Size for Structural Equation Models. Psychological Methods. Supplementary Files [This relies on the semPower package]

Moshagen, M. (in press). When a truly positive correlation turns negative: How different approaches to model hierarchically structured constructs affect estimated correlations to covariates. European Journal of Personality. Supplementary Files

Pfadt, J. M., van den Bergh, D., Sijtsma, K., Moshagen, M., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (in press). Bayesian estimation of single-test reliability coefficients. Multivariate Behavioral Research

Ścigała, K. A., Schild, C., Lilleholt, L., Moshagen, M., Zettler, I., & Pfattheicher, S. (in press). Aversive personality and COVID-19: A first review and meta-analysis. European Psychologist Supplementary Files

Sijtsma, K., & Pfadt, J. M. (in press). Part II: On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha: Discussing lower bounds and correlated errors. Psychometrika.

Sijtsma, K., & Pfadt, J. M. (in press). Rejoinder: The future of reliability. Psychometrika.

Thielmann, I., Moshagen, M., Hilbig, B. E., & Zettler, I. (in press). On the comparability of basic personality models: Meta-analytic correspondence, scope, and orthogonality of the Big Five and HEXACO dimensions. European Journal of Personality
Supplementary Files

Zettler, I., Schild, C., Lilleholt, L., Kroencke, L., Utesch, T., Moshagen, M., Böhm, R., Back, M. D., & Geukes, K. (in press). The role of personality in COVID-19 related perceptions, evaluations, and behaviors: Findings across five samples, nine traits, and 17 criteria. Social Psychological and Personality Science. Supplementary Files


Bader, M., Hartung, J., Hilbig, B. E., Zettler, I., Moshagen, M., & Wilhelm, O. (2021). Themes of the dark core of personality. Psychological Assessment, 33(6), 511-525. Supplementary Files

Bader, M., Jobst, L. J., Zettler, I., Hilbig, B. E., & Moshagen, M. (2021). Disentangling the Effects of Culture and Language on Measurement Non-Invariance in Cross-Cultural Research: The Culture, Comprehension, and Translation Bias (CCT-) Procedure. Psychological Assessment, 33(5), 375–384. Supplementary Files

Baumeister, H., Paganini, S., Sander, L.B., Lin, J., Schlicker, S., Terhorst, Y., Moshagen, M., Bengel, J., Lehr, D., Ebert, D.D. (2021). Effectiveness of a guided Internet- and Mobile-based intervention for patients with chronic back pain and depression (WARD-BP): A multicenter, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 90, 255-268.

Hartung, J., Spormann, S. S., Moshagen, M., & Wilhelm, O. (2021). Structural Differences in Life Satisfaction in a U.S. Adult Sample across Age. Journal of Personality, 89, 1232 - 1251 Supplementary Files

Hilbig, B. E., Moshagen, M., Horsten, L. K., & Zettler, I. (2021). Agreeableness is dead. Long live Agreeableness? Reply to Vize and Lynam. Journal of Research in Personality, 91, 104074. 

Hilbig, B. E., Thielmann, I., Klein, S. A., Moshagen, M. & Zettler, I. (2021). The dark core of personality and socially aversive psychopathology. Journal of Personality89, 216-227. Supplementary Files

Jobst, L. J., Heine, C., Auerswald, M., & Moshagen, M. (2021). Effects of Multivariate Non-Normality and Missing Data on the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. Structural Equation Modeling, 28, 851-858. Supplementary Files

Tiwari, S., Moshagen, M., Hilbig, B. E., & Zettler, I. (2021). The Dark Factor of Personality and Risk-Taking. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, 8400. Supplementary Files

Zettler, I., Moshagen, M., & Hilbig, B. E. (2021). Stability and Change: The Dark Factor of Personality Shapes Dark Traits. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 12, 974-983. Supplementary Files


Hilbig, B. E., & Moshagen, M. (2020). All models (of basic personality structure) are wrong, but some are useful. European Journal of Personality, 34, 527-528. doi: 10.1002/per.2284

Jobst, L. J., Heck, D. W., & Moshagen, M. (2020). A Comparison of Correlation and Regression Approaches for Multinomial Processing Tree Models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 98, 102400. doi: 10.1016/ Supplementary Files

Küchler, A.-M., Schultchen, D., Pollatos, O., Moshagen, M., Ebert, D.D., Baumeister, H. (2020). StudiCare mindfulness – study protocol of a randomized controlled trial evaluating an internet-and mobile-based intervention for college students with no and “on demand” guidance. Trials, 21: 975. 10.1186/s13063-020-04868-0

Lindheimer, N. C., Nicolai, J., & Moshagen, M. (2020). General rather than specific: Cognitive deficits in suppressing task irrelevant stimuli are associated with buying-shopping disorder. PLOS One, 15, e0237093. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237093 Supplementary Files

Lunkenheimer, F., Domhardt, M., Geirhos, A., Kilian, R., Mueller-Stierlin, A.S., Holl, R.W., Meissner, T., Minden, K., Moshagen, M., Ranz, R., Sachser, C., Staab, D., Warschburger, P., Baumeister, H. (2020). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of guided Internet- and mobile-based CBT for adolescents and young adults with chronic somatic conditions and comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms (youthCOACHCD): study protocol for a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Trials, 21: 253. 10.1186/s13063-019-4041-9

Moshagen, M., Zettler, I., & Hilbig, B. E. (2020). Measuring the dark core of personality. Psychological Assessment, 32,  182-196. doi: 10.1037/pas0000778 Supplementary Files

Moshagen, M., Zettler, I., Horsten, L. K. & Hilbig, B. E. (2020). Agreeableness and the common core of dark traits are functionally different constructs. Journal of Research in Personality, 87, 103986. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2020.103986 Supplementary Files

Schild, C., Moshagen, M., Scigala, K. A., & Zettler, I.  (2020). May the odds—or your personality—be in your favor: Probability of observing a favorable outcome, Honesty-Humility, and dishonest behavior. Judgment and Decision Making, 15,  600-610. pdf Supplementary Files

Sindermann, C., Elhai, J. D., Moshagen, M., & Montag, C. (2020). Age, gender, personality, ideological attitudes and individual differences in a person’s news spectrum: How many and who might be prone to “filter bubbles” and “echo chambers” online? Helyon, 6: e03214. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e0321410.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03214

Zettler, I., Thielmann, I., Hilbig, B. E., & Moshagen, M. (2020). The Nomological Net of the HEXACO Model of Personality: A Large-scale Meta-analytic Investigation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 15, 723-760. doi: 10.1177/1745691619895036 Supplementary Files


Auerswald, M. , & Moshagen, M. (2019). How to determine the number of factors to retain in exploratory factor analysis: A comparison of extraction methods under realistic conditions. Psychological Methods, 24, 468-491. doi: 10.1037/met0000200 Supplementary Files

Kuhlmann, B.G., Erdfelder, E., & Moshagen, M. (2019). Testing Interactions in Multinomial Processing Tree Models. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:2364. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02364

Moshagen, M., Thielmann, I., Hilbig, B. E., & Zettler, I. (2019). Meta-analytic investigations of the HEXACO Personality Inventory(-Revised): Reliability generalization, self-observer agreement, intercorrelations, and relations to demographic variables. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 227, 186-194. doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000377 Supplementary Files

Müller, S., & Moshagen, M. (2019). Controlling for Response Bias in Self-Ratings of Personality – A Comparison of Impression Management Scales and the Overclaiming Technique. Journal of Personality Assessment, 101, 229-236. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2018.1451870 Supplementary Files 

Müller, S., & Moshagen, M. (2019). True Virtue, Self-Presentation, or Both? A Behavioral Test of Impression Management and Overclaiming. Psychological Assessment, 31, 181-191. doi: 10.1037/pas0000657  Supplementary Files


Heck, D. W., Hoffmann, A. & Moshagen, M. (2018). Detecting nonadherence without loss in efficiency: A simple extension of the Crosswise Model. Behavior Research Methods, 50, 1895–1905. doi: 10.3758/s13428-017-0957-8 Supplementary Files

Heck, D. W., & Moshagen, M. (2018). RRreg: An R Package for Correlation and Regression Analyses of Randomized Response Data. Journal of Statistical Software, 85, 1-29.  doi: 10.18637/jss.v085.i02

Heck, D. W., Thielmann, I., Moshagen, M., & Hilbig, B. E. (2018). Who lies? A large-scale reanalysis linking basic personality traits to unethical decision making. Judgment and Decision Making, 13,  356-371. pdf Supplementary Files

Moshagen, M., & Auerswald, M. (2018). On Congruence and Incongruence of Measures of Fit in Structural Equation Modeling. Psychological Methods, 23, 318-336. doi: 10.1037/met0000122 Supplementary Files 

Moshagen, M., Hilbig, B. E., & Zettler, I. (2018). The dark core of personality. Psychological Review, 125, 656–688. doi: 10.1037/rev0000111 Supplementary Files

Müller, S., & Moshagen, M. (2018). Overclaiming Shares Processes With the Hindsight Bias. Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 298-300. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.035 Supplementary Files 

Nicolai, J., & Moshagen, M. (2018). Pathological buying symptoms are associated with distortions in judging elapsed time. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7, 752–759.  doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.80

Nicolai, J., Moshagen, M., & Demmel, R. (2018). A test of expectancy-value theory in predicting alcohol consumption. Addiction Research & Theory, 26, 133-142. doi: 10.1080/16066359.2017.1334201 


Heck, D. W., Hilbig, B. E., & Moshagen, M. (2017). From Information Processing to Decisions: Formalizing and Comparing Psychologically Plausible Choice Models. Cognitive Psychology, 96, 26-40. doi: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2017.05.003 Supplementary Files

Moshagen, M., & Hilbig, B. E. (2017). The statistical analysis of cheating paradigms. Behavior Research Methods, 49, 724 - 732. doi: 10.3758/s13428-016-0729-x Supplementary Files

Nicolai, J., & Moshagen, M. (2017). Dissociating pathological buying from obsessive compulsive symptoms using delay discounting. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 225, 224-251. doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000308

Stein, M., Auerswald, M., & Ebersbach, M. (2017). Relationships between motor and executive functions and the effect of an acute coordinative intervention on executive functions in kindergartners. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 859. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00859

Thielmann, I., Hilbig, B. E., Zettler, I., & Moshagen, M. (2017). On measuring the sixth basic personality dimension: A comparison between HEXACO Honesty-Humility and Big Six Honesty-Propriety. Assessment, 24, 1024-1036.  doi: 10.1177/1073191116638411 Supplementary Files


Hilbig, B. E., Moshagen, M., & Zettler, I. (2016). Prediction consistency: A test of the equivalence assumption across different indicators of the same construct. European Journal of Personality, 30, 637-647. doi: 10.1002/per.2085

Moshagen, M., & Erdfelder, E. (2016). A new strategy for testing structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling, 23, 54-60. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2014.950896

Nicolai, J., Darancó, S., & Moshagen, M. (2016). Effects of mood state on impulsivity in pathological buying. Psychiatry Research, 244, 351-356. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.08.009

Stadnitski, T. (2016). Tenets and Methods of Fractal Analysis. In Di Leva, A. (Ed.), The fractal Geometry of the Brain, 45-46. New York: Springer.

Stroe-Kunold, E., Friederich, H-Ch., Stadnitski, T., Wesche, D., Herzog, W., Schwab, M., & Wild, B. (2016). Emotional intolerance and core features of anorexia nervosa: a dynamic interaction during inpatient treatment? Results from a longitudinal diary study. PLoS ONE, 11(5): e0154701. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154701.

Wild, B., Stadnitski, T., Wesche, D., Stroe-Kunold, E.,  Schultz, J-H., Rudofsky, G., Maser-Gluth, Ch., Herzog, W., & Friederich, H-Ch. (2016). Temporal relationships between awakening cortisol and psychosocial variables in inpatients with anorexia nervosa – a time series approach. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 102, 25-32.


Auerswald, M., & Moshagen, M. (2015). Generating correlated, non-normally distributed data using a non-linear structural model. Psychometrika, 80, 920-937. doi: 10.1007/s11336-015-9468-7 Supplementary File

Frey, A., & Moshagen, M. (2015). TBS-TK Rezension: ``Intelligenz-Struktur-Batterie (INSBAT)''. Psychologische Rundschau, 66, 86-88. doi: 10.1026/0033-3042/a000237

Hilbig, B. E., & Moshagen, M. (2015). A predominance of self-identified Democrats is no evidence of a leftward bias. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, e130. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X14001228

Hilbig, B. E., Moshagen, M., & Zettler, I. (2015). Truth will out: Linking personality, morality, and honesty through indirect questioning. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 140-147. doi: 10.1177/1948550614553640 Supplementary Files

Ungar, N., Sieverding, M., Schweizer, F, & Stadnitski, T. (2015). Let me eat what I want: Intervention-Elicited Reactance and Its Implications. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 223(4), 247-256.

Zettler, I., Hilbig, B. E., Moshagen, M., & de Vries, R. E. (2015). Dishonest responding or true virtue? A behavioural test of Impression Management. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 107-111. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.10.007


Heck, D. W., Moshagen, M., & Erdfelder, E. (2014). Model selection by minimum description length: Lower bound sample sizes for the Fisher information approximation. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 60, 29-34. doi: 10.1016/ Excel Sheet

Hepp, J., Hilbig, B. E., Moshagen, M., Zettler, I., Schmahl, C., & Niedtfeld, I. (2014). Active versus reactive cooperativeness in Borderline Psychopathology: A dissection based on the HEXACO model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 19–23. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.08.013

Hilbig, B. E., & Moshagen, M. (2014). Generalized outcome-based strategy classification: Comparing deterministic and probabilistic choice models. Psychonomic Bulletin &Review, 21, 1431-1443. doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0643-0 Supplementary Files

Moshagen, M., Hilbig, B. E., Erdfelder, E., & Moritz, A. (2014). An experimental validation method for questioning techniques that assess sensitive issues. Experimental Psychology, 61, 48-54. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000226

Moshagen, M., Hilbig, B. E., & Zettler, I. (2014). Faktorstruktur, psychometrische Eigenschaften und Messinvarianz der deutschsprachigen Version des 60-Item HEXACO Persönlichkeitsinventars. Diagnostica, 60, 86-97. doi: 10.1026/0012-1924/a000112

Moshagen, M., & Musch, J. (2014). Sample size requirements of the robust weighted least squares estimator. Methodology, 10, 60-70. doi: 10.1027/1614-2241/a000068

Stadnitski, T. (2014). Multivariate Time Series Analyses for Psychological Research: VAR, SVAR, VEC, SVEC Models and Cointegration as Useful Tools for Understanding Psychological Processes. Hamburg: Kovač.


Erdfelder, E., & Moshagen, M. (2013). Conjoint measurement of disorder prevalence, test sensitivity, and test specificity: Notes on Botella, Huang, and Suero’s multinomial model. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 876. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00876

Hilbig, B. E., Zettler, I., Moshagen, M., & Heydasch, T. (2013). Tracing the path from personality - via cooperativeness - to conservation. European Journal of Personality, 27, 319-337. doi: 10.1002/per.1856

Moshagen, M., & Thielsch, M. T. (2013). A short version of the Visual Aesthetics of Websites InventoryBehaviour &Information Technology, 32, 1305-1311. doi: 10.1080/0144929X.2012.694910

Stadnitski, T. (2013). Detecting Fractal Behavior. The Fractal Laboratory Journal; 2:1.

Ungar, N.,  Sieverding, M.,  & Stadnitski, T. (2013). Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake: "Five a Day" Versus "Just One More". Appetite, 65, 200-204.


Moshagen, M. (2012). The model size effect in structural equation modeling: Inflated goodness-of-fit statistics are due to the size of the covariance matrix. Structural Equation Modeling, 19, 86–98. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2012.634724

Moshagen, M., & Musch, J. (2012). Surveying multiple sensitive attributes using an extension of the randomized-response technique. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 24, 508-523. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/edr034

Moshagen, M., Musch, J., & Erdfelder, E. (2012). A stochastic lie detector. Behavior Research Methods, 44, 222-231. doi: 10.3758/s13428-011-0144-2

Nicolai, J., Moshagen, M., & Demmel, R. (2012). Patterns of alcohol expectancies and alcohol use across age and gender. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 126, 347-353. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.040

Nicolai, J., Moshagen, M., Eich, W., & Bieber, C. (2012). The OPTION scale for the assessment of shared decision making: Methodological issues. Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen, 106, 264–271. doi: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.03.002

Stadnitski, T. (2012). Measuring Fractality. Frontiers in Physiology, 127 (3), 1-13.

Stadnitski, T. (2012). Some Critical Aspects of Fractality Research. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences, 16 (2), 137-158.

Stroe-Kunold, E., Gruber, A., Stadnytska, T., Werner, J., and Brosig, B. (2012). Cointegration Methodology for Psychological Researchers: An Introduction to the Analysis of Dynamic Process Systems. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology. 65, 511-539.


Moshagen, M., & Hilbig, B. E. (2011). Methodological notes on model comparisons and strategy classification: A falsificationist proposition. Judgment and Decision Making, 6, 814-820. full text

Moshagen, M., Hilbig, B. E., & Musch, J. (2011). Defection in the dark? A randomized-response investigation of cooperativeness in social dilemma games. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 638-644. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.793

Ostapczuk, M., Musch, J., & Moshagen, M. (2011). Improving self-report measures of medication non-adherence using a cheating detection extension of the randomized response technique. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 20, 489-503. doi: 10.1177/0962280210372843

2010 and earlier

Moshagen, M. (2010). multiTree: A computer program for the analysis of multinomial processing tree models. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 42-54. doi: 10.3758/BRM.42.1.42 

Moshagen, M., Musch, J., Ostapcuk, M., & Zhao, Z. (2010). Reducing socially desirable responses in epidemiologic surveys: An extension of the randomized response technique. Epidemiology, 21, 379-382. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181d61dbc

Moshagen, M., & Thielsch, M. T. (2010). Facets of visual aesthetics. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68, 689-709. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2010.05.006

Nicolai, J., Demmel, R., & Moshagen, M. (2010). The Comprehensive Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire: Confirmatory factor analysis, scale refinement, and further validation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 400-409.  doi: 10.1080/00223891.2010.497396

Stadnytska, T.  (2010). Deterministic or Stochastic Trend: Decision on the Basis of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test. Methodology, 6(2), 83-92.

Stadnytska, T., Braun, S. & Werner, J. (2010). Analyzing Fractal Dynamics Employing R.  Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences, 14(2), 117-144.

Erdfelder, E., Auer, T.-S., Hilbig, B. E., Aßfalg, A., Moshagen, M., & Nadarevic, L. (2009). Multinomial processing tree models: A review of the literature. Zeitschrift für Psychologie - Journal of Psychology, 217, 108-124. doi: 10.1027/0044-3409.217.3.108  

Moshagen, M., Musch, J., & Göritz, A. S. (2009). A blessing, not a curse: Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of visual aesthetics on performance. Ergonomics, 52, 1311-1320. doi: 10.1080/00140130903061717

Ostapczuk, M., Moshagen, M., Zhao, Z., & Musch, J. (2009). Assessing sensitive attributes via the randomized response technique: Evidence for the importance of response symmetry. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 34, 267-287. doi: 10.3102/1076998609332747 

Ostapczuk, M., Musch, J., & Moshagen, M. (2009). A randomized-response investigation of the education effect in attitudes towards foreigners. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 920-931. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.588

Stroe-Kunold, E., Stadnytska, T., Werner, J. & Braun, S. (2009). Estimating Long-range Dependence in Time Series: an Evaluation of Estimators Implemented in R. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 909-923.

Moshagen, M., & Musch, J. (2008). Publication bias in studies on the efficacy of hypnosis as a therapeutic tool. Contemporary Hypnosis, 25, 94-99. doi: 10.1002/ch.355

Stadnytska, T., Braun, S., & Werner, J. (2008). Comparison of Automated Procedures for ARMA Model Identification. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 250-262

Stadnytska, T., Braun, S., & Werner, J. (2008). Model Identification of Integrated ARMA Processes. Multivariate Behavior Research, 43, 1-28.

Stadnytska, T. & Werner, J. (2006). Sample Size and Accuracy of Estimation of the Fractional Differencing Parameter. Methodology, 4, 135-144.

Stadnytska, T. (2005). Stationaritätsverletzung bei ARMA-Modellen: Eine Simulationsstudie. In Werner, J. (Ed.), Zeitreihanalysen mit Beispielen aus der Psychologie, 147-164. Berlin: Logos.