Research Group Leopold

Prof. Dr. Kerstin Leopold
Room: N26/332
Phone: +49 731 50-22754

Head of the Group



  • Greenness of analytical methods for the study of metal-containing nanoparticles in biomedical samples, personal care products and food.
    Blaimer, D., Leopold, K. 
    TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 170 (2023) 117433.
    *** Invited Review ***

  • Seasonal and fasting induced changes in iron metabolism in Djungarian hamsters.
    Kawach, R., Diedrich, V., Gruber, A., Leopold, K., Herwig, A., Vujić Spasić, M. 
    PLoS ONE 18 (2023) e0293971.

  • Coordinative Stabilization of Single Bismuth Sites in a Carbon–Nitrogen Matrix to Generate Atom‐Efficient Catalysts for Electrochemical Nitrate Reduction to Ammonia.
    Zhang, W., Zhan, S., Xiao, J., Petit, T., Schlesiger, C., Mellin, M., Hofmann, J.P., Heil, T., Müller, R., Leopold, K., Oschatz, M.
    Advanced Science (2023) 2302623.

  • Hfe Actions in Kupffer Cells Are Dispensable for Hepatic and Systemic Iron Metabolism.
    Knoop, P.; Yilmaz, D.; Paganoni, R.; Steele-Perkins, P.; Gruber, A.; Akdogan, B.; Zischka, H.; Leopold, K.; Vujić Spasić, M. V. 
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences​ ​​ 24(10), (2023) 8948.

  • Efficient and robust image registration for two-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements
    Bock, F., Gruber, A., Leopold, K., Bruhn, H.
    J. Anal. At. Spectrom.​​ ​​ 38(5) (2023) 1021–1031.
    *** Inside cover ***

  • Multimodal Analysis of Light-Driven Water Oxidation in Nanoporous Block Copolymer Membranes
    Kund, J., Kruse, J.-H., Gruber, A., Trentin, I., Langer, M., Read, C., Neusser, G., Blaimer, D., Rupp, U., Streb, C., Leopold, K., Schacher, F.H., Kranz, C.
    Angew Chem Int Ed (2023), e 202217196.

  • Covalent functionalization of CdSe quantum dot films with molecular [FeFe] hydrogenase mimics for light-driven hydrogen evolution
    S. Benndorf, A. Schleusener, R. Müller, M. Micheel, R. Baruah, J. Dellith, A. Undisz, C. Neumann, A. Turchanin, K. Leopold, W. Weigand, M. Wächtler
    Applied Materials and Interfaces 15(15) (2023) 18889–18897.


  • Determination of trace elements in placenta by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: effects of sampling and sample preparation
    S. Hauser, S. Andres, K. Leopold
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 414(1) (2022) 4519–4529.

  • Pyrimidoquinxoalinophenanthroline opens next chapter in design of bridging ligands for artificial photosynthesis
    J. Brückmann, C. Müller, T. Maisuradze, A. K. Mengele, D. Nauroozi, S. Fauth, A. Gruber, S. Gräfe, K. Leopold, S. Kupfer, B. Dietzek-Ivanšić, S. Rau
    Chemistry A European J 28 (2022) 51.


  • Michael Haschke, Jörg Flock, and Michael Haller: X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for laboratory applications
    K. Leopold
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 413(26) (2021) 6455-6456

  • Atomization of gold nanoparticles in graphite furnace AAS: Modelling and simulative exploration of experimental results
    J. Friedland, A. Brandt, , K. Leopold, R. Güttel
    Spectrochim Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 182 (2021) 106249

  • Photoactive Titanium Dioxide Films with Embedded Gold Nanoparticles for Quantitative Determination of Mercury Traces in Humic Matter-Containing Freshwaters
    V. Stock, A. Mutschler, M. Linden, K. Leopold
    Nanomaterials 11 (2021) 512

  • Macrophage-HFE controls iron metabolism and immune responses in aged mice.
    Tangudu NK, Yilmaz D, Wörle K, Gruber A, Colucci S, Leopold K, Muckenthaler MU, Spasic MV.
    Haematologica 106(1) (2021) 259


  • Determination of activation energies for atomization of gold nanoparticles in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
    A. Brandt, B. Gomez-Nieto, J. Friedland, R. Güttel, K. Leopold
    Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 173 (2020) 105976
    DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2020.105976

  • Characterization of various metal nanoparticles by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations with regard to size and shape
    A. Brandt, K. Kees, K. Leopold
    Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 35 (2020) 2536
    *** Backside cover ***

  • Redox-sensitive glyoxalase 1 up-regulation is crucial for protecting human lung cells from gold nanoparticles toxicity. 
    A. Gambelunghe, S. Giovagnoli, A. Di Michele, S. Boncompagni, M. Dell’Omo, K. Leopold, I. Iavicoli, V.N. Talesa, C. Antognelli.
    Antioxidants 9 (2020) 697. 

  • Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for trace determination of iron and some additional elements in biological samples. 
    Gruber A, Müller R, Wagner A, Colucci S, Spasić MV, Leopold K.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 412 (2020), 6419-6429. 


  • Sub-chronic palladium nanoparticle effects on the endocrine reproductive system of female Wistar rats: Preliminary data: Toxicology and Industrial Health.
    Leso, V., Fontana, L., Marinaccio, A., Leopold, K., Fanali, C., Lucchetti, D., Sgambato, A., Iavicoli, I.
    Toxicology and Industrial Health (2019), preprint.

  • Spurenanalyse von Gold- und Silbernanopartikeln. 
    A. Brandt, D. Bruker and K. Leopold
    chrom+food FORUM 3/2019, 32.
    Spezialausgabe zur ANAKON 2019, Münster.

  • Sustainable and reagent-free mercury trace determination in natural waters using nanogold dipsticks. 
    M. Schlathauer, J. Friedland, M. Lindén and K. Leopold
    Microchemical Journal 147 (2019) 253-262.

  • Sizing silver nanoparticles in chicken meat using direct slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. 
    D. Brucker and K. Leopold
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 411/19 (2019) 4551-4558- 

  • The eastern extent of seasonal iron limitation in the high latitude North Atlantic Ocean. 
    Birchill AJ, Hartner NT, Kunde K, Siemering B, Daniels C, González-Santana D, Milne A, Ussher SJ, Worsfold PJ, Leopold K, Painter SC, Lohan MC
    Scientific Reports 9 (2019) 1435
    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-37436-3

  • Mesoporous Silica-gold Films for Straightforward, Highly Reproducible Monitoring of Mercury Traces in Water
    A. Mutschler, V. Stock, L. Ebert, E. Björk, K. Leopold and M. Lindén
    Nanomaterials 9(1) (2019) 35.
    doi: 10.3390/nano9010035


  • Investigation of the atomization mechanism of gold nanoparticles in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.
    A. Brandt and K. Leopold
    Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 150 (2018) 26–32.
    *** Awarded 2nd best paper published in 2018 by Editorial Board of SAB ***

  • Mobility of traffic-related Pd and Pt species in soils evaluated by sequential extraction. 
    Leopold, K., Denzel, A., Gruber, A., Malle, L.
    Environmental Pollution 242 (2018) 1119–1127.

  • Retention and remobilization mechanisms of environmentally aged silver nanoparticles in an artificial riverbank filtration system.
    L. Degenkolb, G. Metreveli, A. Philippe, A. Brandt, K. Leopold, L. Zehlike, H.-J. Vogel, G.E. Schaumann, T. Baumann, M. Kaupenjohann, F. Lang, S. Kumahor, S. Klitzke
    Science of The Total Environment. 645 (2018) 192–204.
  • Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species Production Normalizes Ferroportin Expression and Ameliorates Cellular and Systemic Iron Disbalances in Hemolytic Mouse Model
    N. K. Tangudu, B. Alan, D. Lai, S. Vettorazzi, M. V. Spasic, F. Vinchi, K. Woerle, K, Leopold
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 29(5) (2018) 484-499.
    DOI: 10.1089/ars.2017.7089 
    *** Cover paper ***
  • Subchronic exposure to palladium nanoparticles affects serum levels of cytokines in female Wistar rats
    I. Iavicoli, L. Fontana, V. Leso, M. Corbi, A. Marinaccio, K. Leopold, R. Schindl, D. Lucchetti, F. Calapa, A. Sgambato
    Human & Experimental Toxicology 37 (2018) 309-320.
    DOI: 10.1177/0960327117702952
  • Palladium nanoparticle effects on endocrine reproductive system of female rats
    V. Leso, I. Iavicoli, L. Fontana, A. Marinaccio, K. Leopold, C. Fanali, D. Lucchetti, A Sgambato
    Human & Experimental Toxicology, 37(10) (2018) 1069-79. 
    DOI: 10.1177/0960327118756722


  • Solid-phase extraction of Cu2+ and Pb2+ from waters using new thermally treated chitosan/polyacrylamide thin films: adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics
    Y.G. Abou El-Reash, A.M. Abdelghany, K. Leopold
    International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry (2017) 97(10):965–982
    DOI: 10.1080/03067319.2017.1376905

  • In situ Crystallization of the Insoluble Anhydrite AII Phase in Graphene Pockets
    T. Lehnert, M.K. Kinyanjui, A. Ladenburger, D. Rommel, K. Wörle, F. Börrnert, K. Leopold, U. Kaiser
    ACS Nano (2017) 11(8):7967–7973
    DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b02513

  • In vitro evaluation of the potential toxic effects of palladium nanoparticles on fibroblasts and lung epithelial cells
    I. Iavicoli, M. Farina, L. Fontana, D. Lucchetti, V. Leso, C. Fanali, V. Cufino, A. Boninsegna, K. Leopold, R. Schindl, D. Brucker, A. Sgambato
    Toxicology in Vitro 42 (2017) 191–199.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.04.024

  • A new method for quasi-reagent-free biomonitoring of mercury in human urine
    M. Schlathauer, V. Reitsam, R. Schierl, K. Leopold
    Analytica Chimica Acta (2017) 965:63–71
    DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.02.036

  • Sizing gold nanoparticles using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
    K. Leopold, A. Brandt, H. Tarren
    Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry (2017) 32(4):723–730
    DOI: 10.1039/C7JA00019G
    *** Cover paper ***

  • Determination of traffic-related palladium in tunnel dust and roadside soil
    K. Leopold, K. Wörle, R. Schindl, L. Huber, M. Maier, M. Schuster
    Science of The Total Evironment (2017) 583:169–175
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.048

  • Assessing the potential of inorganic anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42- and PO43-) to increase the bioaccessibility of emitted palladium in the environment: Experimental studies with soils and a Pd model substance
    F. Zereini, C.L.S. Wiseman, J. Poprizki, P. Albers, W. Schneider, K. Leopold
    Environmental Pollution (2017) 220(B):1050–1058
    DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.039


  • A direct solid sampling analysis method for the detection of silver nanoparticles in biological matrices
    N.S. Feichtmeier, N. Ruchter, S. Zimmermann, B. Sures, K. Leopold
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2016) 408(1):295–305
    DOI: 10.1007/s00216-015-9108-1

  • Nanomaterial-based strategies for enhanced mercury trace analysis in environmental and drinking waters
    J. Huber, K. Leopold
    Trends in Analytical Chemistry (2016) 80:280–292
    DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2015.09.007

  • Analytical strategies to the determination of metal-containing nanoparticles in environmental waters
    K. Leopold, A. Philippe, K. Wörle, G.E. Schaumann
    Trends in Analytical Chemistry (2016) 84:107–120
    DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2016.03.026

  • Geochemical behaviour of palladium in soils and Pd/PdO model substances in the presence of the organic complexing agents L-methionine and citric acid
    F. Zereini, C.L.S. Wiseman, M. Vang, P. Albers, W. Schneider, R. Schindl, K. Leopold
    Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts (2016) 18(1):22–31
    DOI: 10.1039/c5em00521c


  • Uptake, effects, and regeneration of barley plants exposed to gold nanoparticles
    N.S. Feichtmeier, P. Walther, K. Leopold
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research International (2015) 22(11):8549–8558
    DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-4015-0

  • The effects of palladium nanoparticles on the renal function of female Wistar rats
    L. Fontana, V. Leso, A. Marinaccio, G. Cenacchi, V. Papa, K. Leopold, R. Schindl, B. Bocca, A. Alimonti, I. Iavicoli
    Nanotoxicology (2015) 9(7):843–851
    DOI: 10.3109/17435390.2014.980759

  • Nanogold-Decorated Silica Monoliths as Highly Efficient Solid-Phase Adsorbent for Ultratrace Mercury Analysis in Natural Waters
    J. Huber, L.-E. Heimburger, J.E. Sonke, S. Ziller, M. Linden, K. Leopold
    Analytical Chemistry (2015) 87(21):11122–11129
    DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b03303

  • Exposure to Palladium Nanoparticles Affects Serum Levels of Cytokines in Female Wistar Rats
    I. Iavicoli, L. Fontana, M. Corbi, V. Leso, A. Marinaccio, K. Leopold, R. Schindl, A. Sgambato
    PloS One (2015) 10(11):e0143801
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143801

  • The influence of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the transformation and solubility of metallic palladium and palladium(II) oxide in the environment
    F. Zereini, C.L.S. Wiseman, M. Vang, P. Albers, W. Schneider, R. Schindl, K. Leopold
    Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts (2015) 17(5):915–921
    DOI: 10.1039/c5em00078e

  • Bioavailability of Platinum Group Elements to Plants—A Review
    N.S. Feichtmeier, K. Leopold
    In: Platinum Metals in the Environment, F. Zereini, C.L.S. Wiseman (Eds.), Environmental Science and Engineering, Springer Berlin Heidelberg (2015) 311–338
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-44559-4_20

  • Analysis of Platinum Group Elements in Environmental Samples: A Review
    R. Schindl, K. Leopold
    In: Platinum Metals in the Environment, F. Zereini, C.L.S. Wiseman (Eds.), Environmental Science and Engineering, Springer Berlin Heidelberg (2015) 109–128
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-44559-4_8


  • Detection of silver nanoparticles in parsley by solid sampling high-resolution-continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry
    N.S. Feichtmeier, K. Leopold
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2014) 406(16):3887–3894
    DOI: 10.1007/s00216-013-7510-0

  • Trendbericht Analytische Chemie 2012/2013
    M. Lämmerhofer, J. Popp, S. He, W. Nau, K. Leopold, C. Kranz, J.W. Einax, B. Mizaikoff
    Nachrichten aus der Chemie (2014) 62(4):407–414
    DOI: 10.1002/nadc.201490115

  • Palladium nanoparticles induce disturbances in cell cycle entry and progression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells: paramount role of ions
    C. Petrarca, E. Clemente, L. Di Giampaolo, R. Mariani-Costantini, K. Leopold, R. Schindl, L.V. Lotti, R. Mangifesta, E. Sabbioni, Q. Niu, G. Bernardini, M. Di Gioacchino
    Journal of Immunology Research (2014) 2014:295092
    DOI: 10.1155/2014/295092


  • Umweltmonitoring von Quecksilber in Gewässern
    J. Huber, K. Leopold
    GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift (2013) 5:2–4
    zum Artikel

  • Comparative study of alkylthiols and alkylamines for the phase transfer of gold nanoparticles from an aqueous phase to n-hexane
    L. Li, K. Leopold, M. Schuster
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2013) 397:199–205
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.01.062


  • Ultra-trace determination of mercury in river waters after online UV digestion of humic matter
    K. Leopold, A. Zierhut, J. Huber
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2012) 403(8):2419–2428
    DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-5851-8

  • Ligand-assisted extraction for separation and preconcentration of gold nanoparticles from waters
    L. Li, K. Leopold
    Analytical Chemistry (2012) 84(10):4340–4349
    DOI: 10.1021/ac2034437

  • Effective and selective extraction of noble metal nanoparticles from environmental water through a noncovalent reversible reaction on an ionic exchange resin
    L. Li, K. Leopold, M. Schuster
    Chemical Communications (2012) 48(73):9165–9167
    DOI: 10.1039/c2cc34838a

  • Trendbericht Analytische Chemie 2010/2011
    B. Mizaikoff, M. Lämmerhofer, J.A.C. Broekaert, J. Popp, B. Lendl, K. Leopold, F.W. Scheller, A. Yarman, S. Schumacher, N. Plumere, A. Hennig, W.M. Nau, C. Kranz, J.W. Einax
    Nachrichten aus der Chemie (2012) 60(4):406–420
    DOI: 10.1002/nadc.201290145

  • Nanoparticle-Induced Toxicity: Focus on Plants
    A. Speranza, K. Leopold
    In: Toxic Effects of Nanomaterials, H. Ahmad Khan, I. Abdulwahid Arif (Eds.), Bentham Science Publishers (2012) 3–27
    DOI: 10.2174/97816080528371120101


  • Pd Particles as Standardized Test Material for Bioavailability Studies of Traffic Related Pd Emissions to Barley Plants
    K. Leopold, M. Schuster
    In: Urban Airborne Particulate Matter, F. Zereini, C.L.S. Wiseman (Eds.), Environmental Science and Engineering, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2011) 399–410
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-12278-1_20

  • Effects of palladium nanoparticles on the cytokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of palladium-sensitized women
    M. Reale, G. Vianale, L.V. Lotti, R. Mariani-Costantini, S. Perconti, A. Cristaudo, K. Leopold, A. Antonucci, L. Di Giampaolo, I. Iavicoli, M. Di Gioacchino, P. Boscolo
    Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (2011) 53(9):1054–1060
    DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318228115e


  • Effects of palladium nanoparticles on the cytokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of non-​atopic women
    P. Boscolo, V. Bellante, K. Leopold, M. Maier, L. Di Giampaolo, A. Antonucci, I. Iavicoli, L. Tobia, A. Paoletti, M. Montalti, C. Petrarca, N. Qiao, E. Sabbioni, M. Di Gioacchino
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents (2010) 24(2):207–214

  • Methods for the determination and speciation of mercury in natural waters - a review
    K. Leopold, M. Foulkes, P. Worsfold
    Analytica Chimica Acta (2010) 663(2):127–138
    DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.048

  • Pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble Pd(II)
    A. Speranza, K. Leopold, M. Maier, A.R. Taddei, V. Scoccianti
    Environmental Pollution (2010) 158(3):873–882
    DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.09.022

  • Analysis of total dissolved mercury in waters after on-line preconcentration on an active gold column
    A. Zierhut, K. Leopold, L. Harwardt, M. Schuster
    Talanta (2010) 81(4–5):1529–1535
    DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2010.02.064

  • Ein reagenzienfreies Verfahren zur ultraspurenanalytischen Bestimmung von Quecksilber in aquatischen Proben
    A. Zierhut, K. Leopold, L. Harwardt, M. Schuster
    Umweltwissenschaften Schadstoff-Forschung - UWSF (2010) 22:72–77


  • Gold-coated silica as a preconcentration phase for the determination of total dissolved mercury in natural waters using atomic fluorescence spectrometry
    K. Leopold, M. Foulkes, P.J. Worsfold
    Analytical Chemistry (2009) 81(9):3421–3428
    DOI: 10.1021/ac802685s

  • Preconcentration techniques for the determination of mercury species in natural waters
    K. Leopold, M. Foulkes, P.J. Worsfold
    Trends in Analytical Chemistry (2009) 28(4):426–435
    DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2009.02.004

  • Activated gold surfaces for the direct preconcentration of mercury species from natural waters
    A. Zierhut, K. Leopold, L. Harwardt, P. Worsfold, M. Schuster
    Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry (2009) 24(6):767
    DOI: 10.1039/b820701a


  • Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects
    F. Battke, K. Leopold, M. Maier, U. Schmidhalter, M. Schuster
    Plant Biology (Stuttgart, Germany) (2008) 10(2):272–276
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2007.00017.x

  • A new fully automated on-line digestion system for ultra trace analysis of mercury in natural waters by means of FI-CV-AFS
    K. Leopold, L. Harwardt, M. Schuster, G. Schlemmer
    Talanta (2008) 76(2):382–388
    DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2008.03.010

  • Long-term study of palladium in road tunnel dust and sewage sludge ash
    K. Leopold, M. Maier, S. Weber, M. Schuster
    Environmental Pollution (2008) 156(2):341–347
    DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.02.005

  • Preparation and characterization of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd nanoparticles as standardized test material for chemical and biochemical studies of traffic related emissions
    K. Leopold, M. Maier, M. Schuster
    Science of The Total Environment (2008) 394(1):177–182
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.01.008


  • Self-assembled nanoreactors as highly active catalysts in the hydrolytic kinetic resolution (HKR) of epoxides in water
    B.M. Rossbach, K. Leopold, R. Weberskirch
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2006) 45(8):1309–1312
    DOI: 10.1002/anie.200503291

  • Determination of palladium in road dust and sewage sludge ashes
    K. Boch (Leopold), M. Schuster
    In: Palladium Emissions in the Environment, F. Zereini, F. Alt (Eds.), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2006) 191–201
    DOI: 10.1007/3-540-29220-9_14

  • Safety of gold in stapes surgery
    P. Kwok, M. Schuster, K. Boch (Leopold), P. Jacob, O. Gleich, J. Strutz
    Biomaterials (2005) 26(34):7132–7135
    DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.05.031

  • Microwave-assisted digestion procedure for the determination of palladium in road dust
    K. Boch (Leopold), G. Risse, M. Schwarzer
    Analytica Chimica Acta (2002) 459(2):257–265
    DOI: 10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00123-X

  • Microwave-assisted digestion of organoarsenic compounds for the determination of total arsenic in aqueous, biological, and sediment samples using flow injection hydride generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry
    S. Ringmann, K. Boch (Leopold), W. Marquardt, M. Schuster, G. Schlemmer, P. Kainrath
    Analytica Chimica Acta (2002) 452(2):207–215
    DOI: 10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01477-5